The American Heritage Dictionary Of Indo European Roots

Author: Calvert Watkins
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780618082506
Size: 47.81 MB
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Discusses the nature, origins, and development of language and lists the meanings and associated word for more than thirteen thousand Indo-European root words.

The American Heritage Dictionary Of Indo European Roots

Author: Calvert Watkins
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin
ISBN: 9780547549446
Size: 63.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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A fully revised and updated edition provides etymologies for more than 13,000 words while tracing English's connection to other world languages, in a reference that is complemented by an essay on the reconstruction abilities of linguists and Proto-Indo-European culture. Original.

The American Heritage Dictionary Of The English Language

Publisher: Boston : Houghton Mifflin
ISBN: 9780618082308
Size: 37.61 MB
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This fourth edition has entries for over 10,000 new words reflecting the explosion of computer and Internet technology as well as popular culture and slang.

The Oxford Introduction To Proto Indo European And The Proto Indo European World

Author: J. P. Mallory
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191058122
Size: 47.43 MB
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This book introduces Proto-Indo-European and explores what the language reveals about the people who spoke it. The Proto-Indo-Europeans lived somewhere in Europe or Asia between 5,500 and 8,000 years ago, and no text of their language survives. J. P. Mallory and Douglas Adams show how over the last two centuries scholars have reconstructed it from its descendant languages, the surviving examples of which comprise the world's largest language family. After a concise account of Proto-Indo-European grammar and a consideration of its discovery, they use the reconstructed language and related evidence from archaeology and natural history to examine the lives, thoughts, passions, culture, society, economy, history, and environment of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Our distant ancestors had used the wheel, were settled arable farmers, kept sheep and cattle, brewed beer, got married, made weapons, and had 27 verbs for the expression of strife. The subjects to which the authors devote chapters include fauna, flora, family and kinship, clothing and textiles, food and drink, space and time, emotions, mythology, religion, and the continuing quest to discover the Proto-Indo-European homeland. Proto-Indo-European-English and English-Proto-Indo-European vocabularies and full indexes conclude the book. Written in a clear, readable style and illustrated with maps, figures, and tables, this book is on a subject of great and enduring fascination. It will appeal to students of languages, classics, and the ancient world, as well as to general readers interested in the history of language and of early human societies.

The Origins Of English Words

Author: Joseph Twadell Shipley
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 9780801867842
Size: 61.87 MB
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There are no direct records of the original Indo-European speech. By comparing the vocabularies of its various descendants, however, it is possible to reconstruct the basic Indo-European roots with considerable confidence. In The Origins of English Words, Shipley catalogues these proposed roots and follows the often devious, always fascinating, process by which some of their offshoots have grown. Anecdotal, eclectic, and always enthusiastic, The Origins of English Words is a diverting expedition beyond linguistics into literature, history, folklore, anthropology, philosophy, and science.

How To Kill A Dragon

Author: Calvert Watkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198024712
Size: 77.83 MB
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In How to Kill a Dragon Calvert Watkins follows the continuum of poetic formulae in Indo-European languages, from Old Hittite to medieval Irish. He uses the comparative method to reconstruct traditional poetic formulae of considerable complexity that stretch as far back as the original common language. Thus, Watkins reveals the antiquity and tenacity of the Indo-European poetic tradition. Watkins begins this study with an introduction to the field of comparative Indo-European poetics; he explores the Saussurian notions of synchrony and diachrony, and locates the various Indo-European traditions and ideologies of the spoken word. Further, his overview presents case studies on the forms of verbal art, with selected texts drawn from Indic, Iranian, Greek, Latin, Hittite, Armenian, Celtic, and Germanic languages. In the remainder of the book, Watkins examines in detail the structure of the dragon/serpent-slaying myths, which recur in various guises throughout the Indo-European poetic tradition. He finds the "signature" formula for the myth--the divine hero who slays the serpent or overcomes adversaries--occurs in the same linguistic form in a wide range of sources and over millennia, including Old and Middle Iranian holy books, Greek epic, Celtic and Germanic sagas, down to Armenian oral folk epic of the last century. Watkins argues that this formula is the vehicle for the central theme of a proto-text, and a central part of the symbolic culture of speakers of the Proto-Indo-European language: the relation of humans to their universe, the values and expectations of their society. Therefore, he further argues, poetry was a social necessity for Indo- European society, where the poet could confer on patrons what they and their culture valued above all else: "imperishable fame."

Theoretical Bases Of Indo European Linguistics

Author: Winfred P. Lehmann
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 9780415138505
Size: 56.90 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This crititcal survey of the theory and methodology of Indo-European linguistics ranges from its origins in the 18th century to the present day. It surveys the current status of Indo-European linguistics by making material accessible and by re-examinig the outlines of older theories. The latest advances in the field are also examined, notably by Soviet scholars in the area of typology, which have improved not only our understanding of Proto-Indo-European speakers and their background, but have imporatnt implications for further studies in the field. There is also an account of the phonology, morphology and syntax of Pre- and Proto-Indo-European. This analysis shows the development of various problems and approaches in historical perspective as well as applying and exploring current linguistic findings and theory in the area.

A Dictionary Of Selected Synonyms In The Principal Indo European Languages

Author: Carl Darling Buck
Publisher: Chicago : University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226079370
Size: 53.63 MB
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Originally published in 1949 and appearing now for the first time in a paperbound edition, Buck's Dictionary remains an indispensable tool for diachronic analysis of the Indo-European languages. Arranged according to the meaning of words, the work contains more than 1,000 groupings of synonyms from the principal Indo-European languages. Buck first tabulates the words describing a particular concept and then discusses their etymological and semantic history, tracing changes in meaning of the root words as well as presenting cases indicating which of the older forms have been replaced by expressions of colloquial or foreign origin.

Comparative Etymological Dictionary Of Classical Indo European Languages Indo European Sanskrit Greek Latin

Author: Rendich Franco
Publisher: Rendich Franco
Size: 58.33 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The hitherto unknown history of the formation of ancient Indo-European verb roots and their primary derivatives. From which, with particular phonetic variants described herein, are derived, over thousands of years, the words of Sanskrit, Greek and Latin.

Ace The Verbal On The Sat

Author: Loren Edward Meierding
Publisher: R&L Education
ISBN: 9781578861989
Size: 25.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Here is a guidebook on how to prepare students for what is presented on the verbal sections of the SAT. More than 2,000 words and definitions are provided.